Carbomix phases are composed of spherical, low cross-linking polystyrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) particles with their surfaces modified with sulfonic acid (-SO3H), followed by chelating of metal ions of calcium (Ca2+), lead (Pb2+), sodium (Na+) or potassium (K+) to form Carbomix Ca-NP, Pb-NP, Na-NP, K-NP phases, respectively. The PS/DVB support has cross-linking degree of 5%, 8% and 10% with the particle sizes of 5 and 10 µm. The uniform particle size adds the benefit of high separation efficiency to Carbomix. Carbomix resins have been specifically designed for high resolution separation of carbohydrates, organic acids, peptides, and nucleic acids.

Support: spherical, PS/DVB particles
Cross-linking: 5%, 8% and 10%
Particle size: 5 and 10 µm
Phase structure: hydrophilic, ion-exchange
Chemical composition: PS/DVB-SO3M (M: H, Ca, Pb, Na, or K)
  • Uniform particle size for high resolution and efficiency separation
  • High stability
  • High lot-to-lot reproducibility
  • Long column life
  • Compatibility with most aqueous mobile phases, including pure water as the eluent
  • Wide range of operating temperature (0-85 °C)
  • Low backpressure for the separation
  • pH range (5-9) for Carbomix Ca-NP and (1-3) for Carbomix H-NP columns

Conditions
Column: Carbomix Ca-NP5, 5µm, 8% cross-linking, 7.8×300mm
Mobile phase: nanopure water
Flow rate: 0.6 mL/min
Backpressure: 708 psi
Temperature: 85 °C
Injection Volume: 10 µL
Detector: UV 192 nm
Sample:
(50 mM in H2O)
1. Melezitose
2. Maltose
3. Glucose
4. Mannose
5. Fructose
6. Adonitol (N=64,200/m)

Column Configuration

Carbomix resins can be packed into wide range of column dimensions with ID from 75 mm to 21.2 mm and the length from 5 cm to 30 cm. A custom-made column is also available. Column length and diameter affect resolution and analysis time. The selection of the column is to use only as much resin as necessary to achieve the desired separation. If the compound is strongly retained by the resin and analysis time is long on a 300 × 7.8 mm column, a shorter column, such as 150 mm long can significantly decrease the analysis time.

Separation Mechanism

The separation mechanism for the Carbomix Ca-NP phases includes ion-exchange and hydrophilic interactions with the analytes, such as carbohydrates and organic acids. The separation mechanism could also be due to size exclusion, ion exclusion, and ligand exchange. These multiple modes of interaction enable a unique capability to separate a variety of water soluble compounds. Resin cross-linking degree is an important parameter in the separation. Styrene divinylbenzene resin is a relatively rigid gel-type media. The lower the cross-linking, the more open the pore structure, and the more permeable it is to higher molecular weight substances. A 5% crosslinked Carbomix resin can resolve higher oligosaccharides compared to 10% cross-linked resin. For smaller molecular weight compounds an 8% crosslinked resin is used.

High Stability

The Carbomix resins are stable in pure water and other aqueous buffers at elevated temperature. The reproducibility from run to run is very consistent. Figure below shows the retention time variation for 7 runs is only 0.1% for a Carbomix Ca-NP5 column.

Separation of carbohydrate mixture by a Carbomix Ca-NP5 column (5µm, 8% cross-linking, 4.6×300mm). (Courtesy of Miyako Kawakatsu, M&S Instruments, Inc.)

Conditions
Mobile phase: nanopure water
Flow rate: 0.2 mL/min
Backpressure: 76 bar
Temperature: 85 °C
Injection Volume: 10 µL
Detector: ELSD
Sample:
(6 mg/mL in H2O)
Maltose
Glucose
Fructose
Xylose
Dulcitol
Sorbitol

 

High Lot to Lot Reproducibility

With well controlled polymer resin production and the surface chemistry, the manufacturing of the Carbomix ion-exchangers is highly reproducible. The typical variation of the retention time is less than 6% from batch to batch.

 

Conditions
Column: Carbomix H-NP10, 10µm, 8% cross-linking, 7.8×300mm
Mobile phase: nanopure water
Flow rate: 0.6 mL/min
Temperature: 85 °C
Injection Volume: 10 µL
Detector: RI
Sample: Citric acid
Succinic acid
Formic acid
Acetic acid

 

Long column life

Figure below shows the reproducible injections at 5th, 150th and 300th run with 10µl galactitol on a Carbomix H-NP10 7.8×300 mm column.

 

Conditions
Column: Carbomix H-NP10, 10µm, 8% cross-linking, 7.8×300mm
Mobile phase: 5 mM H2SO4
Flow rate: 0.6 mL/min
Temperature: 80 °C
Injection Volume: 10 µL
Detector: RI
Sample: Galactitol

The Carbomix resins and columns offer many advantages for the analysis of carbohydrates, alcohols, and organic acids in food, beverage, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnology applications.

Organic acid and alcohol analysis include sugars with organic acids, alcohol, glycol, and fermentation products. Carbohydrate analysis includes samples of beet sugars, molasses, corn syrup, pentose sugars, cellulose hydrolysates, oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose, sucrose, and fructose.

Sepax Carbomix H

Standard Dimension:

Part Number Particle Size Cross-Linking ID×Length
 Standard Dimension:
260508-4605 5 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
260508-4630 5 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
260508-7805 5 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
260508-7830 5 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
261005-4605 10 µm 5% 4.6×50mm
261008-4605 10 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
261010-4605 10 µm 10% 4.6×50mm
261005-4630 10 µm 5% 4.6×300mm
261008-4630 10 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
261010-4630 10 µm 10% 4.6×300mm
261005-7805 10 µm 5% 7.8×50mm
261008-7805 10 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
261010-7805 10 µm 10% 7.8×50mm
261005-7830 10 µm 5% 7.8×300mm
261008-7830 10 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
261010-7830 10 µm 10% 7.8×300mm

Coupler
P/N: 102002-COUPLER
One-piece PEEK coupler, recommended to connect columns in series.

Sepax Carbomix Ca

 

Part Number Particle Size Cross-Linking ID×Length
 Standard Dimension:
250508-4605 5 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
250508-4630 5 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
250508-7805 5 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
250508-7830 5 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
251005-4605 10 µm 5% 4.6×50mm
251008-4605 10 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
251010-4605 10 µm 10% 4.6×50mm
251005-4630 10 µm 5% 4.6×300mm
251008-4630 10 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
251010-4630 10 µm 10% 4.6×300mm
251005-7805 10 µm 5% 7.8×50mm
251008-7805 10 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
251010-7805 10 µm 10% 7.8×50mm
251005-7830 10 µm 5% 7.8×300mm
251008-7830 10 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
251010-7830 10 µm 10% 7.8×300mm

Coupler
P/N: 102002-COUPLER
One-piece PEEK coupler, recommended to connect columns in series.

Sepax Carbomix K

 

Part Number Particle Size Cross-Linking ID×Length
 Standard Dimension:
230508-7805 5 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
230508-7830 5 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
231005-7805 10 µm 5% 7.8×50mm
231008-7805 10 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
231010-7805 10 µm 10% 7.8×50mm
231005-7830 10 µm 5% 7.8×300mm
231008-7830 10 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
231010-7830 10 µm 10% 7.8×300mm

Coupler
P/N: 102002-COUPLER
One-piece PEEK coupler, recommended to connect columns in series.

Sepax Carbomix Na

Standard Dimension:

Part Number Particle Size Cross-Linking ID×Length
220508-7805 5 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
220508-7830 5 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
221005-7805 10 µm 5% 7.8×50mm
221008-7805 10 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
221010-7805 10 µm 10% 7.8×50mm
221005-7830 10 µm 5% 7.8×300mm
221008-7830 10 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
221010-7830 10 µm 10% 7.8×300mm

Coupler
P/N: 102002-COUPLER
One-piece PEEK coupler, recommended to connect columns in series.

Sepax Carbomix Pb

Standard Dimension:

Part Number Particle Size Cross-Linking ID×Length
240508-4605 5 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
240508-4630 5 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
240508-7805 5 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
240508-7830 5 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
241005-4605 10 µm 5% 4.6×50mm
241008-4605 10 µm 8% 4.6×50mm
241010-4605 10 µm 10% 4.6×50mm
241005-4630 10 µm 5% 4.6×300mm
241008-4630 10 µm 8% 4.6×300mm
241010-4630 10 µm 10% 4.6×300mm
241005-7805 10 µm 5% 7.8×50mm
241008-7805 10 µm 8% 7.8×50mm
241010-7805 10 µm 10% 7.8×50mm
241005-7830 10 µm 5% 7.8×300mm
241008-7830 10 µm 8% 7.8×300mm
241010-7830 10 µm 10% 7.8×300mm

Coupler
P/N: 102002-COUPLER
One-piece PEEK coupler, recommended to connect columns in series.

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